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Four global experience to support SME development

SMEs in the economic development of countries in the world and play an irreplaceable role. First, to enhance vitality of the market. Most countries (regions) the number of SMEs in the proportion of the total number of enterprises in more than 95%, the United Kingdom and South Korea 99.9%, which makes the big companies can not arbitrarily manipulate the market is conducive to fair competition and enhance the vitality of the market. The second is to provide a large number of jobs. Most countries (regions) of SMEs have provided nearly 50% of jobs, such as the U.S. 53%, Germany 78%, South Korea 87.7% of jobs come from small and medium enterprises. Third is to create great wealth. 75% of Germany's gross domestic product (GDP), U.S. 39% of GDP, 53.5% of sales by small and medium enterprises to achieve. Fourth, to promote economic growth. SME success of "Made in Italy" in the world, supporting their entry into the ranks of world economic power. German SMEs to complete 46% of the total investment contributed 70% of the revenue, and 2 / 3 of the patented technology, about 1 / 3 of the development project has been applied commercially for the formation of a strong Germany laid the international competitiveness a solid foundation.

Establish a complete legal system

Today the major developed countries have established a relatively sound legal system for SMEs, SMEs in many countries has also developed a basic law. The United States in 1953 enacted the "Small Business Act", South Korea in 1966 promulgated the "SME Basic Law", enacted in 1963 in Japan called Japan's "SME Constitution" and "SME Basic Law." SMEs around the Basic Law, the Japanese Ministry of the formation of more than 50 laws on SMEs, involving financing, credit guarantees, mutual support, relationship with big business, deal with crisis situations and other aspects, the development of SMEs to provide a good legal environment, The most comprehensive legislation for SMEs to become one of the countries.

Some countries have enacted special laws to solve specific problems in the development of SMEs. Such as the United States, "Small Business Investment Act" means the small business investment, methods, conditions were clear, "Fair Credit Opportunity Act," provides that commercial lending institutions shall not apply to small business loans to implement discriminatory policies. South Korea's independent research and development to encourage small businesses to develop the "SME business stability and structural adjustment Special Measures Law", "scientific and technological innovation special law." Italy, in 1991 promulgated the famous "to support innovative SMEs and Development Act" to encourage innovation, promote the restructuring of SMEs, to adapt to the emergence of the European Common Market and the new competitive situation changes.

Sound and efficient government institutions

National (regional) government regulatory agencies set divided into two categories. One is located in the central management agencies, set up an agency in place, the implementation of vertical management. Department in charge of SMEs, such as the United States Small Business Administration (SBA), are located in Washington headquarters, located in 10 major cities in 10 regional offices located in 70 local offices and 17 regional branch offices, small business affairs of the vertical management. In addition, the U.S. House and Senate were also set up Small Business Committee, the President listened to the SBA and small business meetings of the small enterprise development policy suggestions and comments. The second category is within the department in the government set up specialized agencies, the administrative framework for SMEs into the government under management. Such as the Japan Ministry of Economy set the "SME Office", as the management of SMEs in the highest administrative body, the National Economic Council set up the "SME office", govern the local SMEs, and the work of the Office of the relative access of SMEs; local government In all, Road House, counties, cities, towns, villages set up specifically to deal with small and medium enterprises. Whether it is equipped with vertical management or government agency management, regulatory agencies as small and medium enterprises to safeguard their own interests, to seek government support is an important guarantee for the development of SMEs played an important role in guiding and facilitating.

To implement the proactive fiscal policy financial

Countries (regions) have a better financial services policy. In sum, national implementation of SME financial policy has four main aspects: First, small business credit guarantee mechanism; Second, some non-profit agencies and organizations to provide funding directly to small businesses; third is the establishment of venture capital and more developed private equity market; four for small businesses to capital market financing opportunities. U.S. financial support for small business is very successful, mainly by the SBA through the Small Business Investment Company programs and a number of loan guarantee programs to achieve its investment company holds a significant proportion of SMEs, from the 1958 start date, small business investment company has more than 10 million small business investment, the investment amounts to over 57.2 billion U.S. dollars. The creation of the U.S. Nasdaq market, designed for small technology companies to provide direct financing channels. Around the development of software industry in India, to create a variety of venture capital funds, and the formation of a multi-level capital market system, directly promoting the Indian software industry to take off.

Strong fiscal support given to SMEs. United States, "Small Business Act" that each year 25% of government procurement to SMEs must, in order to enable small businesses to get government procurement contracts, SBA has the right to split the contract for the small number of large contracts. German government financial support for SMEs is mainly investment subsidies, where unemployed people are given some subsidies to start a business, each recruit an unemployed person a separate and subsidies; technology development to provide funding for SMEs; provide preferential loans and low interest loans. Japanese government financial support for SMEs focus reflected in government-funded banks and loan guarantees for SMEs specialized agencies and counter-guarantee agency, to provide direct loans and guarantees for SMEs loans.

To establish a diversified social service system

Establish and improve the social service system is the world's major initiatives to support SME development, the common practice has two aspects:

On the one hand is a widely established various social service agencies for SMEs. Including various non-governmental organizations and industry associations, management consulting, training, technical support, market development, etc. to provide professional services, and complement the work of government departments, to support the development of SMEs as the social support system. Japanese SMEs operating in the face of such difficulties, you can find a support association for renewable renewable consulting, support the association by the regeneration of lawyers, certified public accountants, teachers and other SME diagnosis made renewable support schemes, and coordination of banking, creditors implementation of support programs.

The other is enriched and improved social services for SMEs. The main contents include: First, innovative services, innovation system for SMEs in developed countries and attached great importance, primarily through venture capital, high-tech business incubators, venture capital firms, venture capital markets board and other ways to encourage innovation. Second, education and training, to promote the value of human capital for SMEs, such as the UK back in the 1980s on the development of a unified national training syllabus, the British chairman of the majority of small and medium enterprises, the general manager and general staff have received the Government's central organization management positions training. Third, marketing, market associations such as the number of products and services are organized to promote activities to help SMEs market expansion. Fourth, information consulting, social groups in many countries to provide information consulting services as their main form of small business services, such as to provide SMEs with information on foreign trade, tax information, financing options and legal advice.